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Tempus Codex

Conjectured Solutions to Creating Closed Time-Like Curves
by Thomas G. Skeggs


It would be almost impossible for anyone to build or construct a time machine. Dr Michio Kaku, professor of theoretical physics at City University of New York, believes time travel could be achieved, but the energy required would far exceed any energy source on earth. The technology would have to be advanced and powerful enough to manipulate energies on the scale of a star. (1)

So any realistic time travelling design would use a quantum or astrological phenomenon like worm holes or quantum singularities, which would act like natural time machines. For anyone to design a device capable of creating closed time-like curves, (time travel into the past) would need to design and build a practical device which is capable of holding worm holes open long enough, so a device can safely pass through it. The device would be like making a key to fit a lock, or cryptanalysis trying to crack an unbreakable code.

This is why I have called this short paper the ’Tempus Codex’.

Exotic Material & the Casimir Effect

Contrary to popular believe, exotic material is not a copy of Playboy magazine!. It is a cunning way to hold open a worm hole and this idea was dreamt up by Physicist Kip Thorne and his colleagues at the California Institute of Technology. Thorne was approached by astronomer and writer Carl Sagan, who was writing a novel called "Contact", about a extra-terrestrial species sending the human race a message. (2)

Thorne came up with an idea of using a Schwarzschild wormhole, which exist naturally in the universe, but are extremely small. Even to small for particles to travel through. Schwarzschild wormholes also have a very brief lifespan, opening and closing before anything can enter the worm hole. But Thorne came up with a ingenious way of opening a Schwarzschild wormhole, and he decided to use a form of anti gravity, produced by a substance called exotic material to line the worm hole, and hold it open so someone can pass through a worm hole safely. But can enough exotic material be produced to hold open a worm hole?. (3)

This maybe possible. Dutch Physicist, Hendrik Casimir, carried out some experiments in the 1950s and it later became known as the "Casimir Effect". (4) The Casimir experiment involved placing two metal plates a few millionths of a meter apart, within a vacuum. An electrical charge was then applied to the two plates.

The two plates were then pulled together, due to the presence of ’exotic material’ . This strange effect occurs due to the nature of space being made up of vacuum fluctuations, where pairs of matter and anti-matter particles continuously appear and disappear to create a boiling sea of virtual particles. Outside these two plates, particles which move in a wave like motion are allowed to exist in larger numbers, but between these plates, there are fewer vacuum fluctuations and only certain wave particles are aloud to exist, as many particles or waves are just to large to fit within the space between the plates. (5)

So this means there are less particles or waves bouncing around between the plates, than outside them. And so the pressure between the plates is lower than outside. Remembering that the plates are in a vacuum, this means what lies between the plates must have less than zero energy, or has negative energy. This is known as the negative energy density and repels mass instead of attracting it.

The main disadvantage with creating exotic material by using the Casimir effect is it would require a great deal of energy.

Under certain conditions, particles may interact with vacuum fluctuations to create exotic material in free space. These certain conditions could be explained by a theory originally designed to explain the evaporation of black holes. (A black hole is created when a star collapses into a singularity, where the density and curvature of space time are infinite).

One clue to achieving time travel, may lie within black holes.

Black Holes & Relativity

The world famous Cosmologist Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University developed a theory explaining why black holes have entropy and emit radiation. Over several years Stephen Hawking discovered that virtual particles that make up vacuum fluctuations are broken apart by the intense gravitational field presence at the surface of the black hole, known as event horizon.

Particles with a negative charge are pulled into the black hole and creates a negative energy density. And the particles with a positive charge are emitted. This emission of virtual particles from black holes has become known as Hawking Radiation. (6) So not only black holes consume the mass of a collapsing star. Black holes destroy the very fabric of space itself, by pulling apart the vacuum fluctuations.

But how can this process be replicated, and the energy needed to produce large worm holes or black holes for a machine would require a very powerful energy source. Not only that it would extremely dangerous, and science has ruled out using black holes as a safe means of transport of travelling through space or time. But instead of producing black holes or trying to hold open a very large worm holes with exotic material, there maybe a more energy efficient way of achieving the same effects without creating black holes, or having to produce enormous amounts of exotic matter.

What’s needed is way to reproduce the effects of a black hole, without having to create one. Another clue to producing a practical time travel may lie within Einstein’s theory of general relativity. l came across some basic descriptions of the Einstein effect. Which stated that the presence of mass can bend space time. The Einstein effect describes how a rotating planetary bodies like our planet or star can drag space time around with it, creating a lensing effect. The mass of an object bends spacetime.

Gravity being curved space.


The key to success in producing a practical method of time travel, may lie within quantum gravity. But the drawback with quantum gravity, is that scientific descriptions of quantum gravity are plagued with infinities. So to fill this void of uncertainty regarding the true nature and function of quantum gravity, I had to improvise, and use Einstein’s theory of relativity as a starting point.

I decided to use electrons in my design, as they are lightless of mass particles and easy to accelerate. If an electron is accelerated towards velocities reaching 99% of the speed of light, the mass of the electron will increase dramatically and the electron will also shrink in size. An electron moving at 99% of the speed of light has 7 times as much mass as when it is at rest (7), and the mass of an electron moving at 99.99% of the speed of light will increase by 70 times its rest mass. (8)

So if an electron were accelerated to


the speed of light, the electron would hit you with the impact of a Mack truck traveling at 60 miles per hour. (9)

General Relativity explains why this happens. The mass of a moving object depends on its speed v. And can be explained with the equation:


y is the Lorentz factor equal to 1/H(1-v2/c2). c is the speed of light. m0 is the rest mass as measured by an observer who is at rest relative to the object. So the energy of an object E, and its mass are related by the equation. E=mc2. (10)

The increase in mass with speed can be calculated with the equation:

m=m0/H(1-v2/c2) (11)

So the mass of an object increases with its speed y in accordance with the equation m=y m0. (12)

So when an electron is accelerated towards the speed of light, its mass will increase and the electron will also shrink in volume. This is known as the Lorentz factor and can be worked out using the equation:


If you could accelerate the Statue of Liberty to 0.999 times the speed of light. The statue which stands 151 feet tall would appear to shrink down to 6.8 ft. (13)

Also when you accelerate an electron, the gravitational mass increases. This increase in gravitational mass of the electron will cause the spacetime surrounding the electron to curve more. Just like in Einstein’s theory of relativity, which predicted the Einstein or lensing effects. Which states gravity is curved space, caused by the presence of mass.

This gravitational distortion which curves spacetime around the electron maybe explained with the equation:


M is mass. h is Planck’s constant and c is the speed of light. (See Note One)

This gravitational distortion produced by high velocity electrons would generate a gravitational time dilation effect. And like in the Casimir experiment where you have two metal plates and you apply an very high voltage to the plates. Electrons would flow at velocities approaching the speed of light and create a small gravitational effect. And with the plates being a few millionths of a meter apart, this would create a negative energy density, due to the low number of vacuum fluctuations between the plates. This results in gravitational field which is repulsive instead of being attractive.

So if we used a 3-dimensional shape such as a hollow cube or sphere, where the walls of the object was made of a pair of metal plates, then the spacetime within this hollow centre would become more probabilistic, due to an increase in entropy.

Through the Looking Glass

Actually making the space within the construct more probabilistic is the key to successful time travel. The answer exists in the complex nature of the vacuum fluctuations, which can exist in a superposition of quantum states. This condition allows for particles both mass and virtual to exist simultaneously in any number of quantum states.

One basic example to explain the super position of quantum states is that all particles can act as particles or as waveforms. But the super position of quantum states means that they can exist as a mixture of the two states. The particles exist as probabilities. When particles are observed this causes the super position of quantum states to collapse into a single state. So in most situations the observed particles act as either as a particle or as wave, or under certain conditions a combination of the two states!.

The complex and mind boggling nature of the super position of quantum states, puzzled Hugh Everett at Princeton University to develop a theory known as the "Many Worlds Interpretation".

Everett was puzzled by the collapse of the wave function when a observation is made. So he decided it made sense to treat each outcome of every possible quantum event as existing in a real world. (14) This means if a particle was observed to act as a particle in one world, the same particle would act as a wave function in another. So this means there are a infinite number of probabilities that exist as alternative realities and covers all possible eventualities, past, present and future.

In an article featured in the August 2000 edition of Scientific American. Three researchers have been working on the composition and function of the universe. And they believe the universe may consist of a membrane folded up into a cylinder. And other parallel universes may also exist as membranes or D-branes, folded up into this cylinder, and are less than a millimeter apart.

They have also formed the opinion that one of the few forces that can travel from one parallel universe to another, is gravity. (See Figure 1) (15)
Tempus Codex

Its important to point out here that some D-branes may have reversed symmetry, and this may result in particles in some other parallel D-branes to have reversed parity. This may mean that the dimensions within these D-branes could be upside down or back to front. Such reversed symmetry may also result in the emission of gravitinos.

So if a graviton was fired into past, it would arrive in future in another parallel D-brane.

If their idea is correct then the double split experiment has more meaning. As the electrons are fired through the slits, they are travelling at very high speeds. And general relativity tells use when an electron is accelerated towards the speed of light, its mass will increase. As the mass of electron increases so does the gravitational mass increase. This increase in gravitational mass of the electron causes the emission of stronger gravitons which can penetrate into other parallel universes and effect the outcome of the double split experiment in another parallel universe.

Or the electrons emitted in another parallel universe can emit gravitons or gravitinos which effect the outcome of the double slit experiment within our universe.

Causing more interference.

Constructing a Time Travel Device

To create a device to travel back in time, we require a device where it’s interior becomes more isolated from our universe, or to produce its own locality, and to achieve this requires a construct to have a skin that produces a powerful field which no light or radiation can penetrate with the exception of gravity. The construct may consist of a hollow sphere, or box.

I have used the Casimir effect as a starting point to develop a double layered metallic skin for the model construct. The original skin design consisted of two metal skins, separated by very thin cavities. (See Figure 2).

Tempus Codex
This design loosely based on the Casimir experiment and also tries to mimics the configuration of a black hole, where the skins act as an artificial event horizon. Due to the interior space of the construct being cut-off from the surrounding universe, objects or events within construct can act in strange ways.

The gravitons being emitted from the skin of the construct would make non-local connections with other particles making up the construct’s interior in other parallel worlds.

So this effects the probability of where the construct’s interior is within space and time, as the interior generates its own locality and connects to other parallel universes. The minimum result is a time dilation effect.

A highly efficient, well engineered construct may have the ability to create Closed Time-like Curves and travel in the past. The 3 dimensions of space may become fuzzy, caused by the emission of gravitons effecting the 4th dimension of time.

The only way I can describe my design, is that its similar to the TARDIS, which appeared in the BBC TV Sci-fi series, "Dr Who". TARDIS is an acronym for Time And Relative Dimension In Space, where it’s interior has infinite size, greater than its exterior. The construct is similar.

It’s not like a conventional vehicle. Its power source does not physically propel it through space and time. The negative energy density and quantum gravity present within its skin, breaks the connection by warping space and time with the exterior locality, so the interior can create its own time and generate non-local connections with other parallel universes, or moments in time. Its a crude and basic form of teleportation.

Russian scientist, Vadim Chernobrov from the Moscow’s Aviation Institute, has been working on a prototype design known as the Space Transportation System. Chernobrov’s prototype is based on the experimental work carried out by Professor N.A Kozyrev of also of the Moscow Aviation Institute, who carried out work in to the properties of time.

Professor’s Kozyrev conclusion of his experimental work, is if you can create a device that changes the density of space, this will effect the rate or density of time. Causing time within the device to slow down or speed up. Chernobrov constructed a prototype made up of electromagnetic layers which fit inside each other like a Russian doll. The difference in time can be worked using the simple equation:


tE is the standard Earth time and t is the local time within the device. (16)

Stephen Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture, provides a major problem in any design for a device capable of time travel. As his conjecture claims that any device would be destroyed by the vacuum fluctuations, where warped space-time would turn the virtual particles into almost real mass particles, increasing the density of the virtual particles, and reducing the probabilities of other histories existing in the device.

But it maybe these vacuum fluctuations which provide the extra energy to time travel. As an increase in density within the skin of the device would also cause an increase in the entropy within the interior of the device.

So the number of probabilities would be low in the skin, but would be high in the interior of the device.

Into the Abyss: Travelling back in time

It’s claimed that its impossible to travel to a time earlier than the worm hole first became a time machine. So if a worm hole was created in August 2001, you could not travel back in time to June 2001. The laws of general relativity are unequivocal. (17)

But with a better understanding of the universe, being made up of parallel universes (D-branes) there maybe a way to bend the laws of physics slightly, and thus allowing someone to travel safely back into the past.

For example, if you want to travel back in time to Roswell, New Mexico in July 1947, to investigate the alleged UFO crash that occur there. As the time traveler enters the device, they start to imagine being in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. As the time traveler thinks of this, a connection has already formed in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947, and connects up to the one the time traveler is about to enter. Its important to point out here, when such connections form, the laws of general relativity and causality begin to breakdown within it.

The laws of physics suggest that the connection in our present (2001 AD) was created first, but due to the bizarre twist in the nature of time, its means the other connection in 1947 was opened first, some 54 years ago.

Some may claim, from an observer point of view in 2001AD, this is a violation in casualty, but the connection in 1947 is some 54 years old and it has been expanding into hyperspace ever since, until it meets up and connects to the one created in 2001AD.

So when the time traveler enters the device and its switched on, the time traveler will travel backwards in time. Thus generating a time-like curve. It will be the thoughts of the time traveler that connect up the two time periods of 1947 and 2001.

But what about observers from 1947 onwards to 2001?. Would they see the connection forming. The answer is no, as the connection in 1947 onwards would be invisible to the naked eye. So no observers would report seeing it. The only time an observer may see the connection is during a process I have nick-named called, "Convergence". This is when two points of the connection link up to create a non-local connection between two different time periods, so the time traveler can travel back and forth in time.

There are two major drawbacks with this technique. The first is the connection maybe non-traversable. As the time traveler would require the device to travel from the past into the future and appear back in the year 2001. Only what's in the interior of the device travels through time. The device will remain stationary and fixed to its own universe.

The second drawback is some may claim it would be impossible for a time traveler to simply wish themselves into another time period, using the construct. But it could be possible. As the interior will become sensitive to conscious thoughts. If nothing can penetrate the skin of the construct, such as light, sound and electromagnetic radiation. Then nothing can escape out into the surrounding local spacetime. Not even the conscious thoughts of the time traveler. The thoughts of the traveler would exist in the construct as probabilities and would simply be focused elsewhere, in this case, July 1947, Roswell, New Mexico.

But there will be limits, and according to quantum physicist, David Deutch from Oxford University. Time travelers could find themselves in any number of alternate realities or alternate histories. Time travelers could find themselves in a reality where the Nazis won the Second World War, or in a alternate reality where Elvis lives on. But probability rules over imagination. So time travelers will not encounter realities where pigs can fly, or discover real vampires biting the necks of lusty young virgins.

Albert Einstein once stated that ,"Imagination is more important than knowledge".

The hypothetical problems of time travel maybe solved one day by the verification of superstring or M-theory, but the technology needed to make time travel a reality will be developed, by using good old fashioned imagination, ingenuity and inventiveness.

For I dipt into the future, far as the eye could see,
saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be.

by Alfred Lord Tennyson

Note One

This equation is based on Schwarzchild’s radius, which is used to calculate the critical point when a curvature of space is so strong, no mass could escape its gravity and would be compressed down into a singularity.

I have just changed the gravitational constant with Planck’s constant, as the gravitational constant was to large to measure the effect of the gravitational distortion created by a mass particle.

This equation can also be used on any other mass particle.


Trying to explain how the construct works, has been difficult, so here is a summary on how it works:

The construct l have designed uses a process to generate a negative energy density within the walls of the device. This reduces the direct connection with the surrounding spacetime.

The interior of construct it produces it’s own local time.

The presence of a negative energy within the walls of the construct makes interior more probabilistic and sensitive to conscious thoughts.

Other past or future moments in time will exist as probabilities within the interior of the construct. Thinking of a past moment will cause that probability to become higher than the present time.

This paper is an edited version of the original as it takes me a great deal of effort to produce a paper on such a complex subject such as time travel, as I have no academic qualifications whatsoever. This would explain my poor spelling and grammar.

Recently I have made a grave mistake with the CTC Construct Scale Model Prototype. In a bid to keep costs to an absolute minimum, I tried to combine the ideas of the Tempus Codex into prototype aerospace vehicle l have been also developing. I now realize this idea was to ambitious.

But I’m having to abandon all research on time travel until the Spring 2002, due to other commitments.

Further Information

The Fabric of Reality by David Deutsch. A good book which covers subjects such as time travel, quantum computing, virtual reality, alternate realities.

Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy by Kip S.Thorne. This book is classic, and anyone with an interest in black holes, worm holes and time travel, should have a copy of this book.

Time: A Traveler’s Guide by Clifford A. Pickover. This is a book for anyone with an interest in time travel. Includes detailed information for the novice time traveler, plus a few computer programs.

In Search of Schrodinger’s Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality by John Gribbin. This book is a great introduction into the complex subject of quantum physics. This book also details the history of quantum physics, and the scientists who discovered it.

Timeline by Michael Crichton. This is a fictional book, but a great story. This book is about a team of archaeologists sent back into 14th century France. This book maybe made into a film one day.

Contact by Carl Sagan. This is also a fictional book and a film that explores the idea of receiving a message from an extra-terrestrial species. If you want to see a how a CTC Construct may work, then see this film.